عنوان مقاله [English]
The electronic nose technique is a novel and non-destructive method used for grading odorant materials including essence (oils) of medicinal plants. This technique works based on chemical sensors and resembles the human olfactory system. On the other hand, the medical and aromatic plant industry (MAPs) is a new and growing industry that lacks quality control devices. In this study, an electronic nose device is introduced and then the possibility of identifying and grading 8 species of basil is investigated. An electronic nose system based on eight metallic oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors were used. First, the main constituents of the essential oils of 8 species were extracted from the basil and were determined using standard laboratory methods, their type and percentage. Then, the grading of these classes was evaluated using a non-destructive electronic nose test. Results of PCA principal component analysis showed that using the first two principal components (PCA1, PCA2), 88% of the variance can be justified. Also, using the PCA LQ diagram of the MQ135 sensor had a greater effect on class separation. The results showed that e-nose as an inexpensive, accurate, easy tool to identify species of basil is effective.
1- Sanaeifar, A., ZakiDizaji, H., Jafari, A., Guardia, M.d. (2017). Early detection of contamination and defect in foodstuffs by electronic nose: A review. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 97, 257-271.
2- Persaud K. and Dodd, G. Analysis of discrimination mechanisms in the mammalian olfactory system using a model nose,” Nature, vol. 299, pp. 352–355, 1982.
3- Paton, A., Harley, R., & Harley, M. 1999. Ocimum: an overview of classification and relationships, Basil: 11-46: CRC Press.
4- Sajjadi, S. E. 2006. Analysis of the essential oils of two cultivated basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Iran. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14(3): 128-130.
5- Omidbaigi R. Production and Processing of medicinal plants (In Persian). Astan'e Qods'e Razavi publication. Vol 3. Tehran-Iran. 2008, 397pp.
6- Bowes, K. M., & Zheljazkov, V. D. 2004. Factors affecting yields and essential oil quality of Ocimum sanctum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 129(6): 789-794.
7- Peter, K. V. 2012. Handbook of herbs and spices: Elsevier.
8- Makri, O., & Kintzios, S. 2008. Ocimum sp.(basil): Botany, cultivation, pharmaceutical properties, and biotechnology. Journal of herbs, spices & medicinal plants, 13(3): 123-150.
9- Xiao, Z., Yu, D., Niu, Y., Chen, F., Song, S., Zhu, J. and Zhu, G., 2014. Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose. Journal of chromatography B. Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences, 945: 92-100.
10- Loutfi, A., Coradeschi, S., Mani, G.K., Shankar, P. and Rayappan, J.B.B., 2015. Electronic noses for food quality: A review. Journal of Food Engineering, 144: 103-111.
11- Gorji-Chakespari, A., Nikbakht, A. M., Sefidkon, F., Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, M., & Valero, E. L. 2017. Classification of essential oil composition in Rosa damascena Mill. Genotypes using an electronic nose. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 4: 27-34.
12- Baby, R., Cabezas, M., Castro, E., Filip, R., & de Reca, N. W. 2005. Quality control of medicinal plants with an electronic nose. Sensors and actuators B: Chemical, 106(1): 24-28.
13- Russo, M., Serra, D., Suraci, F., Di Sanzo, R., Fuda, S. and Postorino, S., 2014. The potential of e-nose aroma profiling for identifying the geographical origin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) roots. Food Chemistry, 165: 467-474.
14- Laureati, M., Buratti, S., Bassoli, a., Borgonovo, G. and Pagliarini, E., 2010. Discrimination and characterisation of three cultivars of Perilla frutescens by means of sensory descriptors and electronic nose and tongue analysis. Food Research International, 43: 959-964.
15- Zhang, B., Huang, Y., Zhang, Q., Liu, X., Li, F. and Chen, K., 2014. Fragrance discrimination of Chinese Cymbidium species and cultivars using an electronic nose. Scientia Horticulturae, 172: 271-277.
16- Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, M., Mohtasebi, S.S., Siadat, M., Razavi, S.H., Ahmadi, H. and Dicko, A., 2012. Discriminatory power assessment of the sensor array of an electronic nose system for the detection of none of Kohgiluyeh-va-Boyerahmad province from Iran due to employment creation and permanent development. Biological Forum-An International Journal, 7(1): 749-751.